Favorable climatic and geographical conditions, the agrarian orientation, the availability of labor resources and highly skilled specialists, high scientific potential in the agricultural sphere are the advantages of growing organic production in the Krasnodar region. On the other hand, the promotion of ecologically clean products is a factor of growth of competitiveness in the Krasnodar region and in the whole country. Currently the Krasnodar region is one of the leading regions of the Russian Federation in the investment activity and consistently ranks the first place in the Southern Federal District of the Russian Federation. Rating of the Krasnodar region in the world’s business is rather high: “Standard & Poor’s” agency assigned an international investment rating ”BB” (as “positive” prognosis). Moreover, the region is in seven Russian regions with the lowest investment risks, and is second in the rating of Russian regions according to legislative activity in the field of investment.
Agriculture complex is one of the leading sectors of the region in the attracting of investment and it also has determinant priority in regional economy. Natural conditions and resources of the Krasnodar region are characterized by favorable soil and climate. It allows to produce better yields of agricultural products than the most regions of Russian Federation. The total land area of the region is more than 7.5 million hectares, including 3.8 million hectares of arable land (80 % is black soil).
More and more land (in the world scale) is set aside for biological clean farming. In Europe it is more than 5 million hectares, in North America – 1.5 million, inAustralia– 10.6 million hectares. The movement for organic agriculture has been actively developed for over 30 years in Europe, the U.S.A., and Japan. According to total resources of 2009 the global market volume of organic products exceeded $ 59 billion, while its average growth rate is about 10-15 %. The strategy of creation of the legislative and normative base in the field of ecological, biodynamic agriculture and use of natural resources has been developed inRussian Federationin 2003. The project of Federal law about manufacture of organic agricultural products and introduction of amendment to legislative acts of theRussian Federation” has been developed in 2012. The organic production manufacture requires maintenance of soil fertility and soil biological activity. Speaking about methods of implementation of ecological production we should not forget about such problem as absence of certified lands (they are only 0.003 % of the total area of agricultural land, when the total area is 406 million hectares in theRussian Federation). The certification may less take than 4 years only if the documentation was conducted properly and chemical characteristics of soil correspond to acceptable levels. The system of monitoring component conditions of the environment, based on five chemical analytical determinations of individual pollutants and on their compliance with State standards and MAC (Maximum Permissible Concentration), does not cover the entire spectrum of toxic pollutants, the total number of which, according to the International Registry, has already exceeded 50.000. Besides some recommended tests are complex and expensive, they are not effective in the evaluation of the synergistic action of factors of different origin. But the application of microbiological methods, as ways of determination of the effect of cumulative impacts of pollutants, may decide that trouble.
Analysis of the response reaction of living organisms to the action of environmental factors provides an integrative evaluation of environment quality. Unfortunately microbiological methods of soil evaluation are not applied in the soil science and ecology, although at present environmental and sanitary and epidemiological services in Russia and other countries widely use the evaluation of water media (with bioindication methods). Microbiological methods of evaluation of territories are express and inexpensive, and therefore they can be used as a reconnaissance to identify and isolate (localize) those areas where more accurate and detailed study with use of classical methods is necessary.
The principles of system formation of informative microbiological, biochemical indexes and biotechnological techniques for the environmental assessment of soil and soil-environmental regulation have been developed. In the development of the conception of biological control of the environment on the basis of microbiological research of bioindicative investigations of soil ecosystems subjected to the anthropogenic influence.
Microbiological monitoring of agricultural soil of the Krasnodarregion allowed to get information concerning the influence of anthropogenic factors on the environment, that is expressed in changes in structural and functional morphology of microbocenoses. The optimal agricultural measures from the standpoint of the effective fertility and the preservation of its agricultural potential on the territories of the Krasnodarregion have been investigated by microbiological method. The authors propose a systematic approach to the evaluation of various types of black soils for agricultural and virgin land, under which is the influence of agricultural and technological development loading on the basis of knowledge of structural morphology and functioning of soil microbocenoses and the redistribution of functions among their components. The possibility of regulation of microbiological processes of nutrients and humus convertion by utilization of different systems of land has been investigated. An indicator function of actinomycetes and micromycetes for diagnosing of different types of black soil under agrocenosis has been identified. Microbiological characteristics of cultivated soils have been received. The possibility of bio-indication of ecological condition of different types of black soil of agricultural territory of Krasnodar in the impact of different land systems of growing conditions, technological loads, etc., has been represented. All the above mentioned information is used as knowledge base for the environmental regulation of loading on soil systems and especially on the organic farming.
Thus, the multi-dimensional portraits of microbial functional complexes of different genetic horizons and soil types of the Krasnodar region can be used for the purpose of the creation a database for diagnostics of soils in natural and anthropogenically altered soil monitoring.